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Other Factors that Contribute to Ocular Rosacea
Topics Discussed Below
- Other factors that contribute to ocular rosacea
- Bacterial abnormalities
- Yeast abnormalities
- Food and cosmetic allergies
I. Other Factors that
Contribute to Ocular Rosacea
Ocular rosacea symptoms
can be worsened by bacterial changes, fungal changes, and allergies.
1. Bacterial Abnormalities
Increased bacteria along
the eyelid margin are noted in some ocular rosacea sufferers.
(1, 8) These bacteria break down lipid secretions from the
meibomian glands into inflammatory by-products that may irritate
the ocular surface. Physicians can swab the outer eyelid surface
of rosacea sufferers to determine if there are any bacterial abnormalities
2. Yeast Abnormalities
In a recent article,
"Ocular Rosacea: Current Concepts and Therapy",
Dr. Kligman points out that many ocular rosacea sufferers have
seborrheic dermatitis of the eyelids. (27) In fact,
in most rosacea patients who have seborrheic dermatitis of the
scalp, eyebrows, or center of the face, it is safe to say that
these sufferers have some involvement of yeast in their ocular
symptoms. (27) One of the tell-tale signs of seborrheic
dermatitis of the eyelids is that there are thick, greasy scales
on the eyelashes close to the eyelid margin. (8) Seborrheic
dermatitis can aggravate rosacea symptoms by clogging up the meibomian
glands and triggering inflammation of the eyelid. Physicians can
swab the outer eyelid surface of rosacea sufferers to determine
if there are any yeast abnormalities present.
3. Food and Cosmetic
Allergic reactions to food can affect the external eye and eyelid
by causing vascular flushing, and triggering mast cell activation.
(28) These can cause ocular irritation, hyper-irritability, itching,
burning and swelling of the eyelid. (28) All ocular rosacea
sufferers should look for a correlation between food intake and
aggravation of eye symptoms.
The delicate eye area is extremely susceptible to cosmetic allergens.
(29) Common allergens include mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, and
eye makeup removers. (30) Allergic reactions can cause flushing
of the ocular surface, ocular irritation, and eyelid inflammation.
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faces". Skin Care Today 5: 1999.
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of doxycycline and tetracycline in ocular rosacea. Am J Ophthalmol
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G.T. Boozalis, and D. Miller. Effective treatment of phlyctenular
keratoconjunctivitis with oral tetracycline. Ophthalmology
100: 1358-1366, 1993.
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D.S. Hull, and L.S. Davis. Ocular rosacea. Signs, symptoms, and
tear studies before and after treatment with doxycycline. Arch
Dermatol 133: 49-54, 1997.
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Foster. Ocular rosacea. A histologic and immunopathologic study.
Ophthalmology 97: 1468-1475, 1990.
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epithelial cells". In: Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and
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Plenum Press, 1999, p. 471-478.
- Pisella, P., F.Brignole, C. Debbasch, PA Lozato, C.Cruezot-Garcher,
J.Bara, P.Saiag, JM Warnet, and C Baudouin. Flow cytometric analysis
of conjunctival epithelium in ocular rosacea and keratoconjunctivitis
sicca. Ophthalmology 107(10): 1841-1849, 2000.
- Barton, K., D.C. Monroy, A. Nava, and S.C. Pflugfelder. Inflammatory
cytokines in the tears of patients with ocular rosacea. Ophthalmology
104: 1868-1874, 1997.
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and S.C. Pflugfelder. A unified theory of the role of the ocular
surface in dry eye. Adv Exp Med Biol 438: 643-651, 1998.
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Classification and grading of lid changes. Eye 5 ( Pt 4):
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film lipids. Structure, function, and control. Adv Exp Med
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and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Arch Ophthalmol 102: 556-557,
- Pflugfelder, S.C., S.C. Tseng, K. Yoshino, D. Monroy, C. Felix,
and B.L. Reis. Correlation of goblet cell density and mucosal
epithelial membrane mucin expression with rose bengal staining
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